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Effect of Turbulence Model in Numerical Simulation of Surface Protrusions at Low Reynolds Number

Drag characteristics of different combinations of cubical surface protrusions were studied using computational analysis in order to better understand the drag phenomena. Clean flat plate simulations were first performed and validated with experimental results to ensure that reliable computational solutions were obtained. 

It was found that the addition of a single cubical protrusion of frontal area of 1cm² at a low Reynolds number increased the drag by approximately 10%. 

Surface protrusions were later added in either row-wise or column-wise configurations and their effect on the drag value examined. 

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